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A Beginner’s Guide To OPSEC

In this article, I’ll talk about maintaining good OPerational SECurity (OPSEC) practices. Practicing good OPSEC requires diligence and care. You will probably make mistakes while learning it and putting it into practice. That’s totally okay. Just make sure that whatever you’re doing isn’t too sensitive in the beginning and learn from your mistakes.

Please note that this article is actively and heavily being worked on. Do not consider this article as complete or even fully correct. If you spot an issue or if there’s something you’d like to add, please let me know. The goal for this article is be a rather lengthy one, inclusive of the needs of many different types of operations.

If you would like to contribute to this article, please open a pull request on GitHub. I would love community contributions to this article.

With that said, let’s dig in!

Physical location

Never perform operations out of your place of living. Always travel to a location at least 75 miles (121 kilometers) away. This location should always be random. Never use the same place twice. Only bring the minimal amount of personally-identifying items necessary (driver’s license if you’re driving.)

You can use your own car, so long as it does not have RF comms capabilities (GPS, satellite radio, even TPMS). Using a cab or ride sharing service is okay, provided you can pay in cash. Most grocery store customer service desks will let you use their phone. If you’re driving your own vehicle, try not to use roads with tolls. Depending on the sensitivity of the operation, taking a cab to an area close to your final destination, then walking the rest of the way might be a good idea.

When travelling, wear non-identifiable clothing. Nothing with logos, slogans, etc. Plain and boring is the entire theme of OPSEC. Only travel with burner devices. Keep them turned off with the battery removed until you reach your destination.

Never contact loved ones or people who know the real you during your travels.

Securing your network

Once you’ve traveled to a random location, make sure it has publicly-available internet access. Wired is better than wireless, though the vast majority of business only provide free wireless.

There’s a common misconception that solely using VPNs will keep you safe. This is not true. VPNs simply transfer trust. Stay away from VPNs that market themselves as subpeaona- or warrant-proof. VPN providers will always follow justified requests from law enforcement agencies. They may not currently log, but they will once required by law. No VPN provider will go to jail simply to save some unknown user. They will always save their own skin. VPNs are useful, especially if you want to make your traffic look like it’s coming from a certain geographic region. They’re just one more tool in an OPSEC toolbag.

Use a fully Tor-ified network. I’ve written a guide on how to do that. Once you’ve connected to Tor, then connect to your VPN of choice. Never connect to the VPN prior to connecting to Tor. Since VPNs generally set your default route, do not connect to the VPN from the same device as the one connecting to Tor. Otherwise, Tor traffic would go over the VPN instead of the opposite (VPN over Tor).

Connecting to the VPN first enables the VPN provider to know who you are. By connecting to Tor first (and using the Tor-ified network), you will need to use a VPN provider that uses TCP instead of UDP. Tor does not support UDP for anything other than DNS.

All devices on your network should be kept up-to-date. Use full-disk encryption where possible to protect data at rest. Of course, when the device is powered on and the encrypted volume is mounted, the encrypted data is accessible by you and any potential adversaries.

Burner phones will likely not have firmware updates, but that’s fine. Burner phones should be treated as hostile devices and should be tossed every-so-often.

All devices on the network should be paid for in cash. None of the devices should be attributable to you. If your operating system supports it, randomize the MAC addresses of the NICs on the devices. Wired networks should be preferred over wireless.

Ensure bluetooth is disabled on all devices. Cameras should be covered and microphones turned off, if possible. If there are physical toggles for bluetooth, cameras, or microphones, use those.

If possible, use operating systems that put security first. If you’re a Linux user, I’ve heard good things about Alpine and Void Linux. If you’re a BSD user, HardenedBSD or OpenBSD would be good choices.

If you go the “Tor-ify your network route,” make sure NEVER to run Tor behind Tor. Do not run the Tor Browser in this case. Running Tor behind Tor can open up weaknesses in your setup.

If using a regular browser, ensure you’ve hardened it. Here are some sites that teach you how to harden your browser:

  1. Firefox:
  2. Chrome:

Purchasing Equipment

You will likely want or need a burner phone along with a burner SIM. The following instructions have a bias towards purchasing equipment, like a burner phone and SIM, within the USA. Always pay in cash.

A lot of electronics stores, like Best Buy, sell unlocked GSM phones. Use the travel documentation above to travel to a random Best Buy. You might be driving for a while, so plan to make it a day trip. Plan on spending around $160 USD for a single burner phone and SIM. Trac Fone, H2O Wireless, and Simple Mobile are good providers to use. They don’t require using official identification. Always buy the pre-paid top-up cards.

You’ll want to pay attention to how long stores keep their CCTV camera recordings. Typically, they will delete recordings older than two weeks or one month. Do NOT use your newly-purcashed equipment within that window. Never set up your newly-purchased equipment at any location that identifies you or where you purchased it.

When registering your burner phone and SIM, do so at a different location. Again, use the travel instructions above after you’ve waited till the surveillance camera recordings have cycled. For accounts that require using SMS to verify identity, do the initial setup for them, including setting up any accounts you may need (gmail, signal, facebook, twitter, etc.). Make sure to use the Tor-ified network setup linked to above during the setup process. Disable GPS, bluetooth, and anything else that generates RF comms and isn’t needed for communication services.

After you’ve performed your initial setup, cut up and toss the SIM card. Make sure to toss each bit in different locations. Put your burner phone in airplane mode and keep it that way for the rest of the burner’s life time. You’ll use wifi only from now on, preferrably with the Tor-ified network.

Once you’re done with the initial setup, you’re set. Of course, the phone number may get reassigned to someone else. That other person may decide to use Signal with that number. If that happens, destroy your current burner phone, toss it at a random location, and restart this process all over again.

Whenever you’re done at a location and are about to move to a new location (including going home), make sure you pull the battery. Ensure that whatever battery-powered equipment you purchase has a removable battery.

Developing an Alternate Persona

Developing an alternate persona takes time, skill, and patience. You will need to pick a country, language, ancestry, friends, and name that matches all of those. You need to establish an identity, including likes/dislikes, opinions, religion (if any), sexual orientation, etc. Use social media during the hours of the time zone your persona should be in.

Do your research on the culture behind the geographic area of the persona you’re establishing. You will need to use the language of that area. For example, I am American. If I wanted to establish a persona of someone from England, I would make sure to always write “favourite” instead of the US English spelling “favorite.” “Color” becomes “colour,” “flavor” becomes “flavour,” and so on. Your writing style will need to change as well. How you form your sentences can give away who you are.

Establish a migration history that fits your target geographic area. Some people never leave the town they grew up in, some move around a little, others move around a lot.

If you want help generating basic persona information, these sites could help:

This section needs more info.

Communicating With Others

Human life would be extremely boring if we never interacted with other people. Use only the burner devices you’ve set up in the sections above. Use the alternate personas you’ve developed above.

Whenever possible, use end-to-end encrypted (e2e) communications services, like Signal or Wickr. You will want to establish a device rotation schedule and procedure, which includes notifying your contacts of a new ephemeral phone number. You will need to re-establish trust when you obtain a new device. Using the device behind a Tor-ified network is generally best. Once a device has been used behind the Tor-ified network, never use it on any non-Tor network.

If you’re meeting someone you’ve neve met before, meet in a highly visible, public area. You need to establish trust. Do not talk about sensitive operations in public, however. Forget what you’ve seen on TV shows about operatives talking ops in a coffee shop. Never discuss sensitive details over links that can be recorded, even if using e2e applications. Assume the device you’re using has already been compromised, even before you opened the packaging material. Use the burner device to discuss high-level details, such as meeting times and locations.

When discussing sensitive details, keep electronics powered off, with the batteries fully removed, and preferrably in a different room. Ideally, the electronics would be powered off with the batteries pulled before going to the location where sensitive details can be discussed.

If you need to keep notes during meetings, do so with pencil and paper. Limit what you keep in electronic form. Use a notepad and ensure you do not write on any material that can leave impressions.

Special Note on Phones

Contributed by: ThoughtPhreaker

If you’re trying to hide yourself on the phone network, there’s several things to consider.

What kind of phone are you using?

What kind of phone you’re on is, to a recipient on a landline, an open secret. The reason being that all four major mobile providers each use different codecs and bitrates for their calls. T-Mobile uses AMR running at 12 kbps and AT&T AMR at 6 kbps. Sprint and Verizon’s CDMA networks use proprietary codecs based on EVRC-B. Both have a significantly sharper sound than AMR though, and in the case of Verizon’s network, a bitrate low enough to warrant the implementation of vocoderization. Voice over LTE networks generally use different codecs.

The point being however, these are all distinct sounding codecs, and can be picked out by anyone with a good ear. It doesn’t stop there, though:

Many voice-over-wifi services default to using the original (now generally unused in GSM, but extremely distinct sounding) GSM codec, referred to as GSM 6.10, or occasionally just “full rate”. If you have the option to avoid it, doing so would be advisable.

One popular myth about the phone network is that it doesn’t deliver frequencies below 300 hertz. Despite what textbooks will tell you, this is very false. While the interfaces to the mobile network have DSP-based filters that cut off everything below roughly this, many phones with analog interfaces - and the equipment that powers them have whatever is cheapest to implement (which can vary quite a lot. Either the line interface circuit or the phone almost always has one though, typically rolling off around 100 hertz - some more steeply than others). Digital phones intended for PBXes have one that goes slightly lower depending on the manufacturer - maybe ballpark around 80 hertz. However, most softphones have none. This unusual low frequency presence is easy to spot to begin with, but will also greatly exacerbate the companding artifacts in the mu-law codec used in the phone network. This means that the codec will begin to fuzz like crazy, and even if you can’t hear the low frequencies, will make it plain as day how you’re calling. The apparentness of this can be magnified by webcam mics with poor acoustic echo cancellation and the heavy-handed attempts of algorithms to conceal it.

Additionally, as far as incoming calls are concerned, it’s important to note that the type of equipment powering your phone can frequently be identified by the ringback tone it generates. The reason being that digital switching equipment frequently has a DSP loop pre-generated PCM samples to generate the ring tone, and it’s almost always done in different ways by different equipment. Telecom operators are creatures of habit, and will frequently buy a lot of the same gear for a nationwide network. Anyone with knowledge of this will have a significantly easier time figuring out what network you’re using just by hearing it.

What number are you calling?

If someone is asking you to call something, the short answer is *67 never, ever cuts it. Dialing this introduces what’s referred to as a privacy bit; it doesn’t stop your number from being delivered, but will simply introduce a bit into the initial address message associated with your phone call telling the equipment not to give it to the subscriber.

Additional Resources

“From 1973 to 1984, CounterSpy published detailed, damning information about US covert activities (and, to a lesser extent, those of other countries, including Israel, Australia, and South Africa). It was most infamous for naming CIA station chiefs. The CIA loathed it and, it’s said, succeeded in undermining it.”

As of 24 Mar 2018, I’ve archived all publicly available issues of CounterSpy here. CounterSpy is a really good resource for learning both opsec failures and successes.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has a really good article on attending protests in the United States.